Welcome to the Self-Guided Tutorial in Communications. Here you will find useful information and a general and effective approach to pursuing your research in many topics concerning Communications. Communications is a very broad field covering many different disciplines and methodologies. Since human communication is so complex, there are many approaches to choosing wisely your research topic and then, as many approaches to researching and writing a good paper or speech. Following the principles out-lined in this tutorial, you should be successful in producing a sound paper or oral presentation.
Communication Studies covers many specialties: advertising, mass communication, journalism, public relations, organizational communication, inter-personal communication, among others. It is important to know that different topics may require different approaches to finding materials for your research.
Communications reflects both the social sciences and the humanities:
Pursuing Research For Your Communication Paper Or Oral Presentation:
Before you start on an assignment, it is very important to have a good topic or project in mind. A topic that interests you is vital to a sound final project. The following steps to successful research can help you achieve a good final result:
Establish your hypothesis
Perform Literature Review:
Explore what has been done on your topic
Choose & Establish Methods:
Decide on what techniques you will use
Refine Your Topic and Adjust for Changes:
Different Approaches yield different results
Carry Out Your Research:
Execute approach, collect data, pursue analysis
Writing Paper or Presentation:
Paper or Presentation Complete
The basic structure of a research paper that is used throughout the social sciences and in many other disciplines is one that is clear and simple to follow. In Communication, papers follow the same general structure as those in most social sciences with slight variations. Each section builds upon the former and clarifies your procedure and argument.
Schematic of a research paper:
- Problem or topic to be pursued
- Literature Review
- Discussion and Conclusion
Generally a hypothesis is tested. Here the importance and purpose of your research is presented. Why it is important to undertake and why you are undertaking it.
This section of your paper places your research within the greater scope of previous research. Here, you actually refer to and acknowledge other's efforts and explain where your work fits within the wider context of knowledge in your particular area. Remember that this section need not be comprehensive, only pertinent to your research.
This critical section explains to your readers or listeners just how you pursued your work. Here, you outline your should ideally include method, i.e. content analysis, or survey. Target population, or media explored, who collected and tabulated the data, and what steps were taken to assure credible and reliable results. This section may vary depending upon what approaches and techniques are involved.
This section contains what you actually found, your data is presented and discussed in terms of how it fits with your attempt.
Here, you discuss the findings of your research within the wider contextual framework of previous research undertaken by others. Questions of how your research compares to those reported in earlier research and how your results may have corroborated or not previous work are discussed. Any variation needs to be mentioned and any possible concerns offered, including any problems encountered and, or limitations. Setting your research in context with other published research is vital to a successful research undertaking. Recommendations for further research on a particular point or phenomenon not addressed, or yet to be considered embeds your research within the greater context of knowledge formation.
Naturally, ComAbstracts is the database most often searched for research articles. For many of the defined communication topics, this well-known database is the most commonly used. But often, your topic is not so easily defined as being firmly placed within communication research and indexed in ComAbstracts.
Depending on your topic, you may have to search among several databases to find pertinent articles. For instance, if you are interested in persuasion, mass media, and the electoral process, all within the specialized area of Political Communication, you have a number of options to choose from. You could go to Academic Search FullText Elite or Proquest Research Library for full text articles, or the more specialized PAIS International for research and popular literature in political science. Sometimes a more specialized index can lead you to more critical research because these indexes actually concentrate on specific disciplines and areas of research and scholarship. SocioFile and ERIC are good examples. Here, you will find most materials exclusively devoted to those areas of interest that deal with sociology and society in general or, as in the case of ERIC, with issues and topics across education.
The most pertinent online indexes at Purdue that may offer relevant publications are:
Academic Search FullText Elite: Universal index with fulltext option
Accunet/AP Photo Archive (News photos from 1840's to today): Excellent source for photographs
AgeLine (AARP): Gerontology & aging issues
America: History and Life: Covers all U.S. history & culture
Art Index: Good for visual communication
ARTbibliographies Modern: Good for 20th c. visual communication
Arts and Humanities Citation Index: All purpose non-science index
Biography and Genealogy Master Index: People's bios
(Wilson) Business Abstracts: Covers all business areas (use OmniFile)
Business Source Premier: Provides fulltext business articles
Child Abuse and Neglect: Excellent for child studies & social work
Columbia International Affairs Online (CIAO): Many fulltext options
ComAbstracts: Major index for communication
Criminal Law Reporter: Good for latest crime & legal info
Current Index to Statistics: Guide to statistics materials
Dissertation Abstracts: Source for finding theses & dissertations
Dow Jones Interactive: Business news, newspapers, magazines
EconLit: Economics research and media economics, etc.
(Wilson) Education: All subjects in education studies (use OmniFile)
The Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850 -1920: Multimedia history
ERIC: The education index for all subjects
Ethnic NewsWatch: Excellent source for current ethnic resources
Family & Society Studies Worldwide: Source for family studies, etc.
Family Law Reporter: Legal materials on family affairs
FRANCIS (International Humanities and Social Studies): Global index
GPO Access: All purpose government publications source
GPO Index: Search online for government resources
HAPI: Hispanic American Periodicals Index: For Hispanic life & culture
Health Source Plus: Key source for health info
Historical Abstracts: Non-U.S. historical research
HRAF Collection of Ethnography (eHRAF): Info on world's cultures
(Wilson) Humanities Abstracts: General index for humanities (use OmniFile)
Index to Legal Periodicals and Books: Index for many legal articles (For fulltext only use OmniFile)
International Index to Black Periodicals: Excellent for articles
Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe: Excellent legal database -fulltext
MedLine: Technical medical index
MLA International Bibliography: The multi-lingual literature index
NewsBank NewsFile: News resource on all subjects
Newspaper Source: Selected newspapers, fulltext
OmniFile Full Text Mega: Represents all Wilson indexes
PAIS International: Excellent index for political subjects
PCI Periodicals Contents Index (Indexes more than 3,000 Journals in the Humanities and Social Sciences from 1770 to the present.): >Retrospective index in diverse fields
Philosophers Index: Excellent for rhetoric, theory, & philosophy
Proquest Research Library: Fulltext articles in many disciplines
PsycINFO: Psychological research, interpersonal
(Wilson) Reader's Guide: Good for popular articles and reviews (Use OmniFile)
Social Sciences Citation Index: All purpose for social sciences
(Wilson) Social Sciences Abstracts: Fulltext for social sciences (Use OmniFile)
SocioFile: The sociological index
Statistical Universe: Excellent statistics resource in many fields
Web of Science(ISI Citation Indexes): Global indexes
Using Communication And Other Journals For Your Research: Communication is very dependent upon journals for the transmission of research and scholarship. Communication research emulates the social science pattern of publication where journal research articles are more critical and timely than books, where more seasoned research appears in monographs. Search E-Journals offered by Purdue University.
Selected Communication Research Journals Available Through Purdue's THOR:
These journals are representative of what is available at Purdue--there are many other relevant journals that have bearing on your research. Databases covering such disciplines as history, political science, economics, psychology, modern languages may index useful articles and even books for your topic. Keep in mind: Communication is an interdisciplinary field that crosses many disciplines. When choosing a specific topic, think in terms that allow for latitude--topics may be researched by many disciplines.
Think in terms of your specific topic and then imagine where such topics might be researched in humanities and social sciences journals. Utilizing indexes is the most efficient approach possible to retrieve the most pertinent and relevant articles critical to your topic. The following examples may be modified according to the number of variables or factors you include.
Remember: ComAbstracts should be considered as your primary index, complemented by others, depending upon your specific research topic: Academic Search FullText Elite[Academic Search Elite] and Proquest Research Library, and Wilson OmniFiles contain fulltext articles and should be searched with CommAbstracts as part of your normal search for articles.
Examples of Possible Topics and Relevant Databases:
Depending upon the complexity of your topic using several databases, and exploring your topic across various disciplines, may be key to viable and more enriched research. Even if your articles are appearing in journals not identified as Communication, they may still deal with your topic and communication through that discipline's particular methodologies and approaches. These are equally valid, especially if empirical results are relevant, and not available through traditional communication journal research literature.
Searching For Books In Communication in THOR:
Although Communication is dependant on journal articles for the latest research, Communication still relies on books and specialized studies appearing in books. Called monographs, these are textbooks, special reports, or special studies in a series devoted to a particular area, i.e. mass communication, interpersonal communication, organizational communication, etc. Often, these monographs treat one subject interest, while a book in a series may treat very specific or broader topics under a specialty, i.e. political communication or health communication.
Books are good to use when interested in:
- Research design, methodologies, and/or techniques
- History of communication
- Philosophical or ethical considerations
- Specific and specialized topics and approaches
- Legal aspects or characteristics
Go to THOR and select the Catalog option and use its various options to search for books of particular relevance. Keep in mind that book-length studies are larger in scope and may or may not provide relevant research for your topic.
If you require a book (or a journal article) that is not available at Purdue, West Lafayette Campus Libraries, you may use the Interlibrary Loan option. Please allow enough time for The Libraries to acquire the item for you. The materials are borrowed from another library and are provided for you convenience for a specific period of time.
The internet is a compelling venue for all kinds of information. As it is ubiquitous in nature and open to almost everything possible, triage is critical to your using it effectively when pursuing your topic. Remember, the internet is not the repository for everything that you would like to access. It is critical that you locate and select materials from vetted sites (sites that are professional, scholarly, or official, and recognized by peer review or other authority) when using web-based materials. Unless directed otherwise by your instructor, you should first discuss this matter with her/him and a librarian. The internet is constantly changing, so it is imperative that you discuss your assignment before you start your research.
Remember: Communication is a very dynamic field and myriad in nature.
This tutorial provides a roadmap for navigating the research and library process,your research will be made easier and your final project, whether paper or oral presentation will improve.