OA in Context
To better understand the current status of Open Access at Purdue it’s important to understand the context of Open Access, as well as the history of Open Access at Purdue. Below is information that will help you to better understand Open Access and its history at Purdue.
- The Open Access movement is a response to instability in the scholarly communication system. That system describes the flow from creation to consumption and preservation of both formal and informal forms of scholarly communication—from published books and peer-reviewed articles, to working papers, conference proceedings, technical reports and more.
- The scholarly communication system's instability is due to a confluence of forces:
- ongoing market pressures over the last 20-40 years as scholarly publishing, in particular, moved from a generally non-profit endeavor to a for-profit one;
- the advent of the Internet and associated technologies making it technically easier to share with the entire world any bit of information, whether formal or informal;
- cultural pressures from various stakeholders, especially taxpayers who fund the research endeavor wondering why they are left out at the end of the cycle;
- growing interdisciplinarity and collaboration across economic and socio/cultural borders to scholars and citizens around the world who wouldn’t otherwise have had access to these materials.
- Stakeholders in this system are numerous and include:
- the authors/researchers that create the scholarship and need to consume it;
- the public that funds the research and sends their children to school;
- state and federal agencies that use taxpayer money to fund research institutions;
- publishers of various types that traditionally have disseminated and coordinated the publishing of the work;
- scholarly societies that represent the interests and needs of the scholarly community.
- If this Scholarly Communication system is like a set of interlocking canals, where the flow of scholarship happens from creator, to publisher, to reader, to preserver/archivist, copyright, and pricing policies by publishers and other disseminators of the scholarship are the locks between different parts of the system, either allowing for open and unfettered flow of the scholarship to readers or restricting access.
- The Open Access movement with its varied manifestations (open access scholarly journals, open access policies by university faculty, by funders or by university administrators) attempts to create a work-around for what has become a slow, inefficient and some might argue unjustly restrictive access.
- The copyright holders (generally the publisher—not author) have historically controlled the access, sharing and conditions under which access and sharing can happen—historically with ever-growing price points. Only those that can pay can access the scholarship. Open Access is a direct response to this.
- For an in-depth overview of open access please see Peter Suber’s Open Access Overview. His brief book, Open Access is also an excellent primer.
- For more on faculty-initiated open access policies see, Good Practices for University Open-Access Policies. Interested in learning more or making YOUR scholarship open access? Please see the getting started page. Would you like someone to come and speak to your faculty or department about the benefits of OA? Please contact email@example.com. Additional reading on Open Access, related copyright issues, and open access policies see:
- Good practices for university open-access policies
- Implementing Open Access Policies Using Institutional Repositories
- OA Now — for updated newsfeeds on open access.
- SPARC- Campus Open Access Policies
- Timothy K. Armstrong. An Introduction to Publication Agreements for Authors, (2009)
- Eric Priest, Copyright and the Harvard Open Access Mandate. Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property. (2012)
- Stuart Shieber, Model Open Access Policy Language
- Coalition of Open Access Policy Institutions (COAPI)
What does Open Access mean for the Purdue Community?
In January 2012 the Purdue University Senate voted to recommend that the University adopt an open access policy like those of over 25 US universities. After discussions with senior administrators and deans of the schools and colleges it was felt that additional conversations with faculty would be important to secure collective interest and support for an open access policy.
In spring 2010, Purdue’s academic senate approved the BTAA Author's Copyright Contract Addendum, for voluntary use by faculty wishing to retain their rights when working with commercial publishers. The Author Addendum is a document that can be attached to publishing contracts, allowing scholars and researchers to retain their rights to their work for teaching and research purposes. Some universities, such as Harvard, Princeton, MIT, and Kansas have taken further steps and adopted open access mandates.
Faculty at these universities retain their rights to their scholarship when they are signing publishing contracts, so that they can deposit their scholarship into open access repositories at their universities, such as Purdue’s e-Pubs, or post it on their personal websites. Retaining your rights before publishing has also become increasingly important due to federal granting agencies requirements for deposit of scholarship and/or data resulting from funded research. National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation both have requirements:
The White House has also come out with its own requirements for publicly funded research. In February of 2013 the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), released a directive on public access to federally funded research and data. The directive has asked that each agency that funds over $100 million in annual research and development to create a plan to support increased public access to the research results that they fund.
What is Hybrid Open Access?
Hybrid Open Access Publishing is a blended business model used by many publishers. Hybrid Open Access journals use the traditional publishing model, requiring users to pay for access to content, while giving authors "options" for publishing their individual papers Open Access. Authors who wish to use the Open Access "options" are required to pay a fee to make their paper available Open Access, while the other content of this journal is only accessible to those who pay the subscription fee. Although Hybrid Open Access allows authors some choice in retaining copyright to their work, these publishers are double dipping. Hybrid Open Access articles aren't always as findable as the publishers claim. Furthermore, Institutions are often billed twice by these publishers: one bill for publishing the research conducted at the institution, and another bill to Libraries for access. Often, these Hybrid Open Access journals are bundled into huge journal deals from vendors, leading Institutions to believe they are getting value for their licensing terms, when, in fact, many of the articles included in those journals are already freely available.
In order to be considered fully Open Access, all the journal's content should be available freely to any user. Any journal that offers access to only some articles is a Hybrid Open Access publisher. If you need to know whether or not a journal is using a Hybrid Open Access publishing model, here are some questions to ask about the journal:
- Does the journal have subscription fees? Or, do you have to be a member of a professional organization in order to access journal content? If the answer is yes, this is a Hybrid Open Access journal.
- Does the journal offer Open Access "options"? If the answer is yes, this is likely a Hybrid Open Access journal.